dimanche 14 septembre 2008

Stabat Mater dolorosa 2

Stabat Mater dolorosa est une célèbre séquence, mais aussi une hymne. L'hymne (au féminin) est une prière chantée aux offices. Les textes des hymnes ont exactement les mêmes caractéristiques que ceux des séquences de sorte qu'on ne peut pas distinguer les uns des autres. Seule la musique les différencie, car les strophes d'une hymne sont chantées toutes sur une seule et même mélodie, tandis qu'une séquence propose du nouveau matériau musical groupé par paire tout au long du texte. Ainsi, dans un livre de chants, Stabat Mater hymne se présente comme suit :

L'hymne Stabat Mater (à comparer avec la séquence Stabat Mater)
Mais ici seulement la première moitié du poème Stabat Mater est utilisée. En fait, on a subdivisé le long texte de la séquence pour en créer trois hymnes à l'usage différent : Stabat Mater dolorosa (v. 1-10) pour vêpres, Sancta Mater istud agas (v. 11-14) pour matines et Virgo uirginum praeclara (v. 15-20) pour laudes. Et il semble que jusqu'au XVIIIe siècle, les trois hymnes se chantaient sur trois ou quatre mélodies différentes. À la fin du XVIIIe siècle, deux d'entre elles se sont réunies pour devenir la mélodie qu'on voit ci-dessus, et depuis, toutes les trois hymnes issues de Stabat Mater sont chantées sur cette musique. L'hymne Virgo uirginum a donc exactement le même aspect que l'hymne Stabat Mater.

Virgo uirginum
Les trois hymnes étaient à chanter le vendredi après le dimanche de la Passion, c'est-à-dire une semaine avant le vendredi saint.

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